The Results-Based Management (RBM) cycle includes several phases: (i) planning, (ii) programming and budgeting, (iii) implementation, and (iv) monitoring & evaluation, with a feedback loop to the next cycle. One needs also to take into account that the RBM cycle is implemented at several levels: strategic, programmatic, and operational. The figure below presents this cycle with phases in columns and levels in lines.
There are different information needs at each phase of the RBM cycle. Planning requires a clear specification of the objectives, a program architecture to achieve the objectives, and a set of indicators and targets to measure the desired performance. Programming and budgeting involvelinking clearly the result targets and budget allocations by program, at multi-year and annual levels. Finally, monitoring and reporting involvegathering data on the actual values of performance indicators, comparingthem with the target values, and producingdashboards as well asprogress and performance reports.
These information needs should be satisfied by transactional information systems, e.g. ERP/GRP, integration tools between these systems, e.g. ETL or EAI, and business intelligence tools that allow to go much further into analysis and support to decision-making. The situation varies from one country to another. However, there are often cases ofcomplex public financial management informationsystems that are too complex, outdated, not user-friendly, poorly integrated, and fundamentally not designed to provide the information necessary to manage for results.